The military says an F/A-18C Hornet was preparing to take off when the jet's engine failed, and it exploded into flames on the flight deck of the USS John C. Stennis on Wednesday at about 2:50 p.m.
Four sailors are listed in stable condition at the Naval Medical Center San Diego. Six others were treated for burns on board the carrier.
The pilot was not hurt.
The fire was quickly extinguished, and there was no significant damage to the ship, but the aircraft sustained at least $1 million in damage, authorities said.
The cause of the fire was under investigation.
The Associated Press contributed to this report.