Officials say Thaddeus Sran disappeared from his home on C Street between 10 p.m. on Tuesday and 8:30 a.m. on Wednesday.
Family members say Thaddeus needs special care and is non-verbal. He had a premature birth and currently uses a feeding tube.
The toddler was wearing a red shirt and Spiderman pants. He is two-feet tall and weighs approximately 30 pounds.
Police say detectives are investigating his disappearance as a possible abduction. Investigators from the Madera County Sheriff's Office, the US Marshall's, the FBI and Madera County Probation have joined in on the search.
Authorities will hold a press conference at 2 p.m.
Anyone with information is asked to call 559-675-4220.