Officers responded to Shotspotter report of seven shots being fired at Kearney Boulevard and Thorne Avenue before 11 pm Tuesday.
When investigators arrived, they found a woman inside a car with a gunshot wound.
She was rushed to Community Regional Medical Center, where she was last reported in critical condition.
A motive for the shooting has not been determined. Police said they have a witness helping them in their investigation.
No suspect information has been released.
Officers spent the early morning hours Wednesday canvassing the area looking for more evidence.
They're asking anyone with information about the shooting to call the Fresno Police Department.