Levine, the country's poet laureate in 2011-2012, died at his home in Fresno, California, of pancreatic and liver cancer, his wife said Sunday.
A native of Detroit and son of Russian Jewish immigrants, Levine was profoundly shaped by his working-class childhood and years spent in jobs ranging from driving a truck to assembling parts at a Chevrolet plant.
Although he taught in several colleges, he had little in common with the academic poets of his time. He was not abstract or insular or digressive. He consciously modeled himself after Walt Whitman as a poet of everyday experience and cosmic wonder, writing tactile, conversational poems about his childhood, living in Spain, marriage and parenting and poetry itself.
"We've lost a great presence in American poetry," said Edward Hirsch, a friend of Levine and president of the Guggenheim Foundation.
Levine captured the ways "ordinary people are extraordinary," while writing poems that are accessible to readers, Hirsch said Sunday. "They move between the most ordinary diction and high romantic heights."
Levine loved the earth and sky as much as any poet of nature, but he came to be identified with poems about work and workers, like "Buying and Selling" or "Saturday Sweeping," in which employees toil under a leaky roof and "blue hesitant light." In "What Work Is," the title piece of his celebrated 1991 collection, he offers a grim sketch of standing on line in the rain, hoping for a job:
This is about waiting,
shifting from one foot to another.
Feeling the light rain falling like mist
into your hair, blurring your vision
until you think you see your own brother
ahead of you, maybe ten places.
He was among the country's most decorated poets, winning the Pulitzer in 1995 for "The Simple Truth" and National Book Awards for the 1979 collection "Ashes" and for "What Work Is." His other honors included the Ruth Lilly Poetry Prize for lifetime achievement and a National Book Critics Circle Award. In naming Levine poet laureate in 2011, Librarian of Congress James H. Billington cited his "plainspoken lyricism" and his gift for expressing "the hard work we do to make sense of our lives."
Levine was born in Detroit in 1928, the son of an auto-parts salesman who died when Philip was 5. Although his mother found work as an office manager, Levine remembered his childhood as "a succession of moves from first a house to a series of ever-shrinking apartments."
The future poet was a scrawny kid - 5 feet 2 inches, 125 pounds - who imagined himself in peril on the streets of Detroit, "the most anti-Semitic city west of Munich." He would imagine walking home from school with a rifle, shooting at Cadillacs, Lincolns and other cars owned by rich people.
By the end 1942, when he was just 14, he had worked at a soap factory and, like a first kiss, discovered poetry. He would walk the streets late at night, speaking to the "moon and stars about the emotional revolution that was raging" inside him. In college, Wayne State University, he read the verse of Stephen Crane and T.S. Eliot and William Carlos Williams and "immersed" himself in the history of poetry.
"I believed even then that if I could transform my experience into poetry I would give it the value and dignity it did not begin to possess on its own," he later observed.
Exhausting factory hours made Levine so determined to write that he showed up in 1953 at the University of Iowa's Writers Workshop even though a planned fellowship had fallen through. He was told he could sign up for one course, but he enrolled in three. One of his teachers, the poet John Berryman, became a mentor.
"He seemed to feel I had something genuine," Levine told The Paris Review in 1988, "but that I wasn't doing enough with it, wasn't demanding enough from my work. He kept directing me to poetry that would raise my standards."
Another poet, Yvor Winters, allowed Levine to stay with him at his home in California and picked him for a Stanford Writing Fellowship in 1958. Around the same time, Levine joined the faculty of California State in Fresno and remained there for more than 30 years. He also taught at Princeton University, Columbia University and several other colleges.
His debut collection, "On the Edge," came out in 1963. Other books included "Not This Pig," ''They Feed the Lion" and "1933." For a time in the 1960s, he lived in Spain, still under the rule of Francisco Franco. Levine developed a deep bond to the country and to its people, especially those who had fought Franco during the country's civil war of the 1930s. He wrote poems about Spain and helped translate works by the Spanish poets Gloria Fuertes and James Sabines.
Back in the U.S., Levine was an opponent of the Vietnam War and defender of civil rights and the rights of working people. In "Coming Home, Detroit 1968," he took in "the charred faces" and "eyes boarded up" of his hometown, which had been devastated by riots the year before. In 1968, he also was among the writers who vowed not to pay taxes until the Vietnam War ended.
"I can remember feeling full of the power of a just cause and believing that power would not fail me. It failed me or I failed it. We didn't really change the way Americans lived, unless you take hairstyles seriously," he once said.
"I'm not a man of action; it finally comes down to that. I'm not so profoundly moral that I can often overcome my fears of prison or torture or exile or poverty. I'm a contemplative person who goes in the corner and writes." Levine was married twice, to Patty Kanterman and to Frances J. Artley, his wife since 1954.
NEWS RELEASE FROM FRESNO STATE:
Philip Levine, emeritus professor at Fresno State and former US poet laureate, dies at 87
(February 15, 2015) - Philip Levine, an emeritus professor of English at California State University, Fresno and former poet laureate of the United States, died from pancreatic cancer in his Fresno home Saturday at the age of 87.
An icon in both the literary world and at Fresno State, Mr. Levine's accomplishments included a Pulitzer Prize for his collection "The Simple Truth" in 1995 and National Book Awards in 1980 and 1991. He served as poet laureate from 2011 to 2012.
"Levine's impact on American literature is not easy to calculate, but it is profound," said Dr. Vida Samiian, former dean of the College of Arts and Humanities at Fresno State that houses the Department of English where Levine taught for more than 30 years.
"He has surely put Fresno on the map and brought immense honor to our community and our campus throughout the years," she said.
Many of his poems explored the lives of working class Americans, often drawing on themes of loss and regret.
"He is one of those poets whose work is so emotionally intense, and yet so controlled, so concentrated, that the accumulative effect of reading a number of his related poems can be shattering," Joyce Carol Oates said of Mr. Levine in the "American Poetry Review."
Born in Detroit to immigrant parents, Mr. Levine worked in industrial factory jobs while attending high school. When Mr. Levin was 5, his father died, and that, plus his experiences living through the Depression and his factory work deeply influenced his work as poet.
He was a first-generation college student, earning bachelor's and master's degrees from what was then Wayne University. Mr. Levine also earned a master of fine arts degree from the Iowa Writers Workshop.
Mr. Levine's connection to Fresno started in 1958 when he joined the Department of English at Fresno State. He retired in 1992, but remained deeply connected to the program.
"He inspired literally hundreds of Fresno State students when he was on campus and in the years since," Samiian said. "The Levine Prize, presented annually from Fresno State's Master of Fine Arts Creative Writing Program to a promising poet, is just one way he continues to nourish literature in the United States."
Dr. Corrinne Hales, Fresno State English professor and coordinator of the Levine Prize in Poetry, called Mr. Levine "an extraordinary poet, teacher, colleague and friend, and one of the most big-hearted people I have ever known."
"Most of us have many funny stories about Phil being a very blunt and tough teacher, but what sometimes gets overlooked is how absolutely generous he was with his expertise, his time and his energy with students, colleagues and friends," Hales said.
Known for his self-deprecating humor and humility, Mr. Levine said his appointment as poet laureate was an honor he did not seek. "The single greatest reward was the writing of the stuff itself, the poetry," he told The Fresno Bee in 2011. "And the second biggest one had to do with my students, mainly here at Fresno State. I had some amazing students here who went on to wonderful careers as poets. Many became very good friends of mine."
He won the Ruth Lilly Poetry Prize, Harriet Monroe Memorial Prize, Frank O'Hara Prize, two Guggenheim Foundation fellowships and three fellowships from the National Endowment for the Arts. In 1997, Mr. Levine was elected as a member of the American Academy of Arts and Letters, and served as a chancellor of the Academy of American Poets.
"Phil Levine was a gifted poet and teacher whose legacy is clearly seen in his many Fresno State students who themselves went on to be teachers and published poets," said Fresno State President Joseph I. Castro. "As a plain speaking, working class poet, his sensibility resonated with Valley students, who gravitated to him as a teacher and mentor. We cherish his memory and will miss his poetic voice."
The Simple Truth by Philip Levine:
What Work Is by Philip Levine:
They Feed They Lion by Philip Levine:
You Can Have It by Philip Levine:
Philip Levine video for PBS and Library of Congress in 2011: