The shooting happened at about 8:45 pm in the area of Olive and Vagedes in Central Fresno.
There were multiple 911 calls from partygoers and neighbors reporting children were running everywhere on the street.
They also reported the suspects crashing their car into other cars and opening fire from the street.
Two cars and two homes nearby were struck by gunfire.
When officers arrived, they found several people hiding in the house and the 15-year-old girl who had been shot in the chest. She was rushed to the Community Regional Medical Center, where she was in surgery.
Her condition has not been released.
Another child was injured while trying to jump a fence.
Fresno police say no adults were present at the event, which was a birthday party for a 16-year-old.
"We appear to have some type of Airbnb rental that was rented for a minor. That birthday party was posted on social media and then the party got out of control," said Fresno police Lt. Paul Cervantes.
Investigators are working to figure out what led to the shooting and piece together the events that followed.
This comes less than 48 hours after four people were shot early Saturday morning near another party in central Fresno, leaving two dead.
Airbnb released the following statement in response to the shooting:
"We condemn the senseless gun violence that took place in Fresno on Sunday. Airbnb bans parties, as well as the use of the platform by anyone under the age of 18 -- and we have zero tolerance for anyone who attempts to circumvent such defenses. We have permanently banned this guest's account from our platform and stand ready to support the Fresno Police Department in their investigation."