Early diagnosis is essential when it comes to autism. Researchers say studying babies' brains may be a critical part of unlocking some of the mystery behind the condition. It could help researchers determine which children may go on to develop autism, and ultimately lead to better outcomes.
Katharine Kollins had no idea her firstborn child Grayson had autism until he was two years old.
Kollins explained, "There were definitely things that were not typical, but little things."
When Grayson stopped speaking after his little sister Evelyn was born, they got the diagnosis.
Kollins continued, "It doesn't feel like your world anymore and everything is kind of crashing."
Heather Cody Hazlett, PhD, UNC Assistant Professor, Department of Psychiatry at the Carolina Institute for Developmental Disabilities says, "One in 68 children have an autism spectrum disorder."
Hazlett says the challenge is early diagnosis because certain behaviors may not show up until later. So her research team focused on babies' brains.
Hazlett said, "Looking at very, very young children, so infants that are at high risk for autism."
The ten-year study at the University of North Carolina looked at the MRI brain scans of more than 500 infants. What they found was that the brains of babies who later went on to develop autism were much bigger in size.
"By the time they're two or three their brain volume is much greater than children that are just typically developing," stated Hazlett.
Hazlett says the study was 80 percent accurate in identifying which children were going to end up on the spectrum.
Hazlett stated, "So that kids can enter into treatment and get interventions just as quickly and as early as possible."
Katharine enrolled her daughter in the study but she didn't develop autism. She wishes they had known earlier with Grayson.
"We would have resources available to us immediately," Kollins said.
Giving children with autism the support they need to grow and thrive.
UNC is planning another study to replicate their findings. The NIH is also funding another study to follow the babies into school age.
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