The crash happened on Highway 140 near Orchard Drive around 12:15 a.m. Saturday.
The California Highway Patrol says the 31-year-old Visalia woman was walking her bicycle in the westbound lanes. She was wearing dark clothes, and the area is not well-lit.
Officers say a man driving an Oregon Roadrunner hay squeeze at about 55 mph did not see her until the last second. He tried to swerve, but could not avoid the collision.
The victim died at the scene. Her name has not been released.
Investigators do not believe drugs or alcohol were factors in the crash.