He was extradited from Utah to Texas to face trial. Texas authorities say Jeffs, 54, arrived at a West Texas jail Tuesday night.
Prosecutors plan to try the charges separately, with the first trial scheduled to begin Jan. 24.
The charges against Jeffs stem from evidence gathered during a raid on the Yearning For Zion Ranch near El Dorado, Texas, in April 2008.
He has been serving time at the Utah State Prison for being an accomplice to rape, for his role in arranging the marriage of a 14-year-old girl to her 19-year-old cousin.
Jeffs is being held without bond at a jail outside San Angelo in West Texas.
The Associated Press contributed to this report.