Pope Benedict the 16th gave his traditional Easter greetings in dozens of languages.
This marks his last major celebration before next week's beatification of Pope John Paul II which is the final step before sainthood.
Tens of thousands of pilgrims, tourists and Romans filled the cobblestone square Sunday morning.
Pope Benedict used his speech to call for peace in the Middle East. Easter Sunday services were also being held in Jerusalem Sunday morning.
Protestant Christians gathered at the garden tomb to mark the day of Christ's resurrection as told in the New Testament.
Many protestant denominations believe Jesus was buried at this site, just outside the walls of the old city of Jerusalem.
Meanwhile in the west bank city of Bethlehem, Catholics celebrated mass at the Church of the Nativity, the traditional site of Jesus' birthplace according to believers.